## Mathematics is an evolving discipline. It is constantly expanding and chang­ing. Although the ancient Greeks, for instance, began to develop number theory and made major contributions to geometry and logic, they had little inkling of probability, which wasn't formalized until the mid 1600s. Following is a brief history of mathematics, according to topic and mathe­matician. Note that most dates are approximations as these individuals often worked years in furthering mathematics. Also, because so many people have con­tributed to mathematics throughout history, this list is quite subjective and we picked who we feel are some of the most significant contributors. Undoubtedly, you will be able to name several others that should be included here. 3000 B.c Egyptians and Babylonians begin the development of number systems and early bookkeeping. Simple problems of arithmetic and geometry necessary to a civilized society become commonplace.   700 B.c. Ancient Greece starts to flourish. Greek thinkers contribute number theory, geometry, and logic to mathematics. 530 B.c Pythagoras, one of the most famous of the Greek mathematicians and philosophers, founds the Pythagorean movement.  300 B.c. Euclid completes his writing of Elements, 13 volumes on mathematics.  100 A.D Astronomers begin to develop trigonometry. 170 Ptolemy, mathematician and astronomer, declares that the earth is the center of the universe. This becomes the dominate view until the 17th century when Copernicus claims that the sun is the center of the solar system.  200 Diophantus, a Gr~ek mathematician, develops algebra. He is considered by many to be the father of that subject.  540 Diophantus and astronomer, advances mathematics by solving the quadratic equation.  600 Geometry, algebra, and numeral systems benefit from Hindu and Arabian thought. The idea of zero is introduced  775 The translation of Hindu mathematics to Arabic takes place. 830 al-Khowarizml, an Arabian, works with algebra, numeral systems, and equations. 1100 Arabic and Hindu mathematics spread throughout Western Europe. 1200 Leonardo of Pis a (Fibonacci), an Italian, works with equations, sequences, series, and Pi. .  1478 The first mathematics books are printed. 1489 The signs of + and - are introduced 1500 Negative numbers and perspective are introduced. 1525 Great work is done on solving equations. 1540 Imaginary numbers are explored. 1557 Englishman Robert Record writes the first English algebra text. 1560 The Italian Girolamo Cardano works with complex numbers, equations, and probability. 1580 Decimals are introduced.  1614 John Napier, Scottish mathematician, creates the first system of logarithms. He is the first to use the decimal point.   1630 The coordinate system is developed. 1640 Rene Descartes, French philosopher, scientist, and mathematician, works on systemizing analytic geometry. He also attempts to classify curves according to the types of equations that produce them.  1645 Pierre de Fermat, French mathematician, studies various topics, including coordinates, polygons, probability, and the Pythagorean theorem.  1650 Blaise Pascal, French philosopher, physicist, and mathematician, formulates one of the basic theorems of projective geometry, known as Pascal's theorem. He also invents the first adding machine.   1680 The German Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz works on calculus, functions, and infinity.   1700 Work on determinants is done. 1780 Complex numbers are explored by several mathematicians.   1799 The Metric System is introduced.  1800 Theories on projection are developed. Number theory is explored. 1810 Carl Friedrich Gauss, a German mathematician, expands the study of number theory.   1820 The Russian Nikolai Ivanovich LCl'Qachevsky works on geometry.  1840 Various mathematicians work with matrices, vectors, and symbolic logic.    1870 George Cantor works with infinite sets.  1905 Albert Einstein develops the theory of relativity.  1910 Various mathematicians, including Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell, study the logical foundations of mathematics.   1920 Emmy Noether studies abstract algebra.  1945 Various mathematicians and researchers work on computers.  1976 Kenneth Appel and Wolfgang Haken find a solution of the Four Color Problem.   1977 Robert Connelly finds a rigidity counterexample.  1993 Andrew Wiles presents what he believes is the proof of the most famous problem in mathematics-Fermat's last theorem. At the time of this book's printing, Wiles' work has not been confirmed.   The Math Teacher's Book of Lists 1995 by Prentice Hall

## Candace M. Jordan
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